SPA Tymfi (Gkamila) mountain
Tymfi (Gkamila) mountain (GR2130009)
National Name: Oros Tymfi (Gkamila)
Tymfi is one of the largest and highest mountains in Greece comprising a significant part of north Pindos mountain range. The area is crossed by rivers Aoos and Voïdomatis and includes the Vikos - Aoos National Park.
Landscape and biodiversity
This is one of the most undisturbed and biodiversity rich sites in Greece; it is covered by broadleaved, coniferous and mixed forests, shrubland, extensive subalpine grasslands at higher altitudes, alpine lakes, steep peaks and cliffs. It is also crossed by several of the continent’s largest and deepest gorges (Vikos and Aoos). Its species diversity, the presence of many endemic plants, as well as the high naturalness and mosaic of ecosystems place the area among the most important regions in Europe for biodiversity.
An important area for breeding raptors and species associated with alpine and forest habitats. Breeding birds include four of the ten species in Europe that are restricted to the Eurasian high-montane (alpine) biome. Gypaetus barbatus and Gyps fulvus used to breed in the area, while Neophron percnopterus still nests here.
Human activities have contributed in the formation of these valuable habitats over the course of many centuries. They include forestry, livestock breeding and extensive agriculture in the sub-mountainous zone. In recent years, it has become one of the most popular mountain and ecotourist destinations in Greece. Moreover, tourism, amateur fishing and recreation activities are rapidly developing.
The main threats include the gradual abandonment of the area’s traditional management practices, such as extensive livestock breeding and small-scale cultivations, as well as forest fires. Primary sector activities are gradually being replaced by the service sector and the local economy is now based on tourism and related activities. As a result, the road network is continuously being improved and expanded, which in turn leads to the fragmentation and gradual degradation of habitats of the area’s trigger species, the increase of anthropogenic pressures and illegal hunting. An important problem for scavengers is the illegal use of poisoned baits, as well as the reduction of food availability especially due to the closure of landfills and the stricter regulation concerning the abandonment of animal carcasses and slaughterhouse remains in the countryside.
• SPA: GR2130009 Oros Tymfi (Gkamila) (27,416 ha, 51 %)
• SPA and SCI: GR2130002 Koryfes Orous Smolika (19,976 ha, 37 %),
• SCI: GR2130001 Ethnikos Drymos Vikou - Aoou (12,794 ha, 24 %), GR2130004 Kentriko Tmima Zagoriou (33,115 ha, 4.9 %), GR1310001 Vasilitsa (8,013 ha, 0.1 %),
• NP: Northern Pindos (194,646 ha, 96 %)
• NFP: Vikos - Aoos (12,833 ha 24 %)
• WR: Iliochoriou - Vrysochoriou Dimou Tymfis (4,479 ha, 8 %), Charadra Aoou (Konitsas - Eleftherou - Papigkou) (3,523 ha, 7 %), Valia Kyrna (Samarinas) (1,710 ha, 3 %), Papigko (1,059 ha, 2 %), Pades (2,076 ha, 4 %)